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Introduction

This is a reference for upgrading your site from Gatsby 3 to Gatsby 4. Version 4 introduces big performance improvements of up to 40% build time reduction and two new rendering options: Deferred Static Generation (DSG) and Server-Side Rendering (SSR). If you’re curious what’s new, head over to the v4.0 release notes.

Table of Contents

Handling Deprecations

Before upgrading to v4 we highly recommend upgrading gatsby (and all plugins) to the latest v3 version. Some changes required for Gatsby 4 could be applied incrementally to the latest v3 which should contribute to smoother upgrade experience.

Use npm outdated or yarn upgrade-interactive for automatic upgrade to the latest v3 release.

After upgrading, run gatsby build and look for deprecation messages in the build log. Follow instructions to fix those deprecations.

Updating Your Dependencies

Next, you need to update your dependencies to v4.

Update Gatsby version

You need to update your package.json to use the latest version of Gatsby.

Or run

Please note: If you use npm 7 you’ll want to use the --legacy-peer-deps option when following the instructions in this guide. For example, the above command would be:

Update your package.json to use the latest version of Gatsby related packages. You should upgrade any package name that starts with gatsby-*. Note, this only applies to plugins managed in the gatsbyjs/gatsby repository. If you’re using community plugins, they might not be upgraded yet. Please check their repository for the current status.

Updating community plugins

Using community plugins, you might see warnings like these in your terminal:

If you are using npm 7, the warning may instead be an error:

This is because the plugin needs to update its peerDependencies to include the new version of Gatsby (see section for plugin maintainers). While this might indicate that the plugin has incompatibilities, in most cases they should continue to work. When using npm 7, you can pass the --legacy-peer-deps to ignore the warning and install anyway. Please look for already opened issues or PRs on the plugin’s repository to see the status. If you don’t see any, help the maintainers by opening an issue or PR yourself! :)

Handling Breaking Changes

This section explains breaking changes that were made for Gatsby 4. Some of those changes had a deprecation message in v3. In order to successfully update, you’ll need to resolve these changes.

Minimal Node.js version 14.15.0

We are dropping support for Node 12 as a new underlying dependency (lmdb-store) is requiring >=14.15.0. See the main changes in Node 14 release notes.

Check Node’s releases document for version statuses.

You can no longer use createFieldExtension, createTypes & addThirdPartySchema actions inside the sourceNodes lifecycle. Instead, move them to createSchemaCustomization API. Or alternatively use createResolvers API.

The reasoning behind this is that this way Gatsby can safely build the schema and run queries in a separate process without running sourcing.

Change arguments passed to touchNode action

For Gatsby v2 & v3 the touchNode API accepted nodeId as a named argument. This now has been changed in favor of passing the full node to the function.

In case you only have an ID at hand (e.g. getting it from cache), you can use the getNode() API:

Change arguments passed to deleteNode action

For Gatsby v2 & v3, the deleteNode API accepted node as a named argument. This now has been changed in favor of passing the full node to the function.

Replace @nodeInterface with interface inheritance

For Gatsby v2 & v3, @nodeInterface was the recommended way to implement queryable interfaces. Now it is changed in favor of interface inheritance:

Use onPluginInit API to share context with other lifecycle APIs

Sites and in particular plugins that rely on setting values on module context to access them later in other lifecycles will need to use onPluginInit. This is also the case for when you use onPreInit or onPreBootstrap. The onPluginInit API will run in each worker as it is initialized and thus each worker then has the initial plugin state.

Here’s an example of a v3 plugin fetching a GraphQL schema at the earliest stage in order to use it in later lifecycles:

In order to make this work for Gatsby 4 & Parallel Query Running the logic inside onPreBootstrap must be moved to onPluginInit:

This also applies to using the reporter.setErrorMap function. It now also needs to be run inside onPluginInit instead of in onPreInit.

Remove obsolete flags

Remove the flags for QUERY_ON_DEMAND, LAZY_IMAGES, FUNCTIONS, DEV_WEBPACK_CACHE and PRESERVE_WEBPACK_CACHE from gatsby-config. Those features are a part of Gatsby core now and don’t need to be enabled nor can’t be disabled using those flags.

Do not create nodes in custom resolvers

The most typical scenario is when people use createRemoteFileNode in custom resolvers to lazily download only those files that are referenced in page queries.

It is a well-known workaround aimed for build time optimization, however it breaks a contract Gatsby establishes with plugins and prevents us from running queries in parallel and makes other use-cases harder (like using GraphQL layer in functions).

The recommended approach is to always create nodes in sourceNodes. We are going to come up with alternatives to this workaround that will work using sourceNodes. It is still being worked on, please post your use-cases and ideas in this discussion to help us shape this new APIs.

You can also learn more about this in the migration guide for source plugins.

Changes to built-in types

The built-in type SitePage now returns the pageContext key as JSON and won’t infer any other information anymore. The SitePlugin type now has two new keys: pluginOptions: JSON and packageJson: JSON.

Field SitePage.context is no longer available in GraphQL queries

Before v4 you could query specific fields of the page context object:

Starting with v4, context field is replaced with pageContext of type JSON. It means you can’t query individual fields of the context. The new query would look like this:

If you still need to query individual context fields - you can workaround it by providing a schema for SitePage.context manually:

Removal of gatsby-admin

You can no longer use gatsby-admin (activated with environment variable GATSBY_EXPERIMENTAL_ENABLE_ADMIN) as we removed this functionality from gatsby itself. We didn’t see any major usage and don’t plan on developing this further in the foreseeable future.

Removal of process.env.GATSBY_BUILD_STAGE

This environment variable was internally used by gatsby-preset-gatsby. If you’re using it you now must pass the stage as an option to the preset.

Windows-specific: No support for WSL1

With the introduction of lmdb-store instances running WSL1 sadly won’t work anymore. You’ll see errors like Error: MDB_BAD_RSLOT: Invalid reuse of reader locktable slot or similar. This is an upstream issue that we can’t fix and we recommend updating to WSL2 (Comparison of WSL1 & WSL2).

Breaking Changes in plugins that we own and maintain.

gatsby-plugin-feed

  • The feeds option is required now
  • The serialize & title key inside the feeds option is required now. Please define your own serialize function if you used the default one until now.

gatsby-plugin-sharp

  • The sizeByPixelDensity option was removed

gatsby-remark-images

  • The sizeByPixelDensity option was removed

gatsby-remark-images-contentful

  • The sizeByPixelDensity option was removed

gatsby-transformer-json

While technically the change that was made is a bugfix, it can be a breaking change in your setup. Previously, if an item contained an id key it was used internally to create the node and track it. This led to cases where different files (with partially the same id) had missing items.

The new behavior now is that gatsby-transformer-json automatically transforms the id key to jsonId and uses an UUID internally for the actual id field on the node. This way the bug with missing items is fixed.

If you use id in your GraphQL queries, swap it out with jsonId.

gatsby-transformer-yaml

While technically the change that was made is a bugfix, it can be a breaking change in your setup. Previously, if an item contained an id key it was used internally to create the node and track it. This led to cases where different files (with partially the same id) had missing items.

The new behavior now is that gatsby-transformer-yaml automatically transforms the id key to yamlId and uses an UUID internally for the actual id field on the node. This way the bug with missing items is fixed.

If you use id in your GraphQL queries, swap it out with yamlId.

Future Breaking Changes

This section explains deprecations that were made for Gatsby 4. These old behaviors will be removed in v5, at which point they will no longer work. For now, you can still use the old behaviors in v4, but we recommend updating to the new signatures to make future updates easier.

nodeModel.runQuery is deprecated

Use nodeModel.findAll and nodeModel.findOne instead. Those are almost a drop-in replacement for runQuery:

The two differences are:

  1. findAll supports limit/skip arguments. runQuery ignores them when passed.
  2. findAll returns an object with { entries: GatsbyIterable, totalCount: () => Promise<number> } while runQuery returns a plain array of nodes

If you don’t pass limit and skip, findAll returns all nodes in { entries } iterable. Check out the source code of GatsbyIterable for usage.

The GatsbyIterable has some convenience methods similar to arrays, namely: concat, map, filter, slice, deduplicate, forEach, mergeSorted, intersectSorted, and deduplicateSorted. You can use these instead of first creating an array from entries (with Array.from(entries)) which should be faster for larger datasets.

Furthermore, you can directly return entries in GraphQL resolvers.

nodeModel.getAllNodes is deprecated

Gatsby v4 uses persisted data store for nodes (using lmdb-store) and fetching an unbounded number of nodes won’t play well with it in the long run.

We recommend using nodeModel.findAll instead as it at least returns an iterable and not an array.

However, we highly recommend restricting the number of fetched nodes at once. So this is even better:

___NODE convention is deprecated

Gatsby was using ___NODE suffix of node fields to magically detect relations between nodes. But starting with Gatsby v2.5 @link directive is a preferred method:

Before:

After:

To find out if you’re using this old syntax you can run gatsby develop --verbose or gatsby build --verbose and warnings will be shown.

Follow this how-to guide for up-to-date guide on sourcing and defining data relations.

For Plugin Maintainers

In most cases, you won’t have to do anything to be v4 compatible. The underlying changes mostly affect source plugins. But one thing you can do to be certain your plugin won’t throw any warnings or errors is to set the proper peer dependencies.

Please also note that some of the items inside “Handling Breaking Changes” may also apply to your plugin.

gatsby should be included under peerDependencies of your plugin and it should specify the proper versions of support.

If your plugin supports both versions:

If you defined the engines key you’ll also need to update the minimum version:

You can also learn more about this in the migration guide for source plugins.

Don’t mutate nodes outside of expected APIs

Before v4 you could do something like this, and it was working:

This was never an intended feature of Gatsby and is considered an anti-pattern (see #19876 for additional information).

Starting with v4 Gatsby introduces a persisted storage for nodes and thus this pattern will no longer work because nodes are persisted after createNode call and all direct mutations after that will be lost.

Unfortunately it is hard to detect it automatically (without sacrificing performance), so we recommend you to check your code to ensure you don’t mutate nodes directly.

Gatsby provides several actions available in sourceNodes and onCreateNode APIs to use instead:

You can use createNodeField and the @link directive to create the same schema shape. The @link directive accepts a from argument that you can use to place your node to the old position (as createNodeField places everything under a fields key). See the source plugin guide for more information. Checkout this PR for a real-world migration example.

___NODE convention

Please note that the deprecation of the ___NODE convention especially affects source plugins and for Gatsby v5 you’ll need to update your usage to keep compatibility.

No support for circular references in data

The current state persistence mechanism supported circular references in nodes. With Gatsby 4 and LMDB this is no longer supported.

This is just a theoretical problem that might arise in v4. Most source plugins already avoid circular dependencies in data.

Bundling external files

In order for DSG & SSR to work Gatsby creates bundles with all the contents of the site, plugins, and data. When a plugin (or your own gatsby-node.js) requires an external file via fs module (e.g. fs.readFile) the engine won’t be able to include the file. As a result you might see an error (when trying to run DSG) like ENOENT: no such file or directory in the CLI.

This limitation applies to these lifecycle APIs: setFieldsOnGraphQLNodeType, createSchemaCustomization, and createResolvers.

Instead you should move the contents to a JS/TS file and import the file as this way the bundler will be able to include the contents.

Known Issues

This section is a work in progress and will be expanded when necessary. It’s a list of known issues you might run into while upgrading Gatsby to v4 and how to solve them.

If you encounter any problem, please let us know in this GitHub discussion.