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New Schema Customization API – Available in Gatsby 2.2.0

Mikhail Novikov
March 19th, 2019

Two weeks ago, we announced our plans for a new schema customization API. Today we are making this set of new APIs and enhancements available to all in gatsby@2.2.0.

First, install the latest and greatest version of gatsby, like so:

Next, continue reading below to see if any of the great, new features we've enabled scratch a particular itch. We feel very confident they will 💜

Recap of schema customization

Before this change, the Gatsby GraphQL schema was generated automatically from the data that the user added to Gatsby. While very convenient and easy to start, changes to the data could cause changes to the schema, which could cause breakage in unrelated locations. Those bugs were confusing and hard to debug. To alleviate this problem, we've added a schema customization API that lets you customize, fix, and enhance types in your Gatsby GraphQL schema.

There are two new APIs, createTypes and createResolvers.


createTypes can be used to define, fix, or extend a Gatsby GraphQL type that represents some of your app's data. Think of it like an escape hatch to politely inform Gatsby of your data's shape.

After adding this to your gatsby-node file, the AuthorJson type will always have fields name and birthday, regardless of the automatically inferred data shape. The rest of the fields will still be inferred normally, allowing you to enjoy the default benefits of Gatsby schema inference.


createResolvers allows doing additional customization after all schema processing has been finished. Thus it can be used to add fields to any types, including root types like Query and types from third party schemas.

The Type Builder API

While createTypes accepts GraphQL types as a Schema Definition Language (SDL) string, we've also added an option to use graphql-js types so that users could create types with resolvers. However, graphql-js is somewhat verbose and it can be hard to refer to types that don't yet exist or don't exist in a current scope. Therefore, we decided to add another programmatic API that combines brevity of SDL with flexibility of graphql-js.

We refer to this API as the Type Builder API. It is available in the schema field of the arguments object passed to Gatsby Node APIs.

Potential for Breaking Changes

We have tried to avoid any breaking changes in this refactor of the underlying GraphQL layer, testing it in notable Gatsby sites and ensuring all tests were passing. However, there are areas where we needed to introduce more stable naming, and in these instances it could be possible that a breaking change was introduced if you were relying on this undocumented API.

Specifically, before this refactor Gatsby type names weren't stable. They could have names like frontmatter_2 because of some quirks in our schema generation. Now the types names are stable and defined. For a Node, it's always a Pascal Camel Cased name of the Node type (for example, MarkdownRemark). For an inline object, it's the name of the node plus the name of the field, again Pascal Camel Cased. So frontmatter_2 would be available as MarkdownRemarkFrontmatter now. If you've had fragments referring to some types by their old names, you may need to change it to new names, e.g.:

Another change relates to inference. Previously, ordering of the Nodes in your data source could affect which type Gatsby inferred. Now, we always consider all possible types, thus you might experience type conflicts for conflicting data sources. They can be solved by either fixing the data or defining a type using new schema customization APIs that we've exposed.


As next steps, we will work on adding more convenient tooling to "freeze" your schema type definitions, so that you can quickly start using this feature. We will also be working on improving API docs for this.

We strongly believe that these new APIs are the foundation of an evolutionary leap of the Gatsby GraphQL API. These changes make the GraphQL API more stable, more robust, and more easily customizable. They will enable further customization and use cases, like theming and more still that we haven't even envisioned yet. We truly can't wait to see the great things you build and how you use these new APIs and improvements powered by Gatsby and its improved GraphQL layer. We got some very enthusiastic feedback about this feature and we are happy to have it released.

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